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Ecology and Ecology Education

Code: 47172
ECTS: 8.0
Lecturers in charge: prof. dr. sc. Ivančica Ternjej
doc. dr. sc. Sara Essert
Lecturers: doc. dr. sc. Sara Essert - Seminar
prof. dr. sc. Ivančica Ternjej - Seminar

izv. prof. dr. sc. Andreja Brigić - Practicum
doc. dr. sc. Sara Essert - Practicum
Take exam: Studomat

1. komponenta

Lecture typeTotal
Lectures 30
Practicum 45
Seminar 30
* Load is given in academic hour (1 academic hour = 45 minutes)
- describe the basic principles in ecology
- describe and interpret basic ecological factors
- describe distribution and abundance of organisms across a variety of ecosystems
- interpret and understand the processes that control the structure and functioning ecosystems
- describe species interactions
- identify population properties
- applying of ecological knowledge and experiments planning
- analyzing data
- analysis and interpretation of biodiversity

Botanical part:
- Ecology as inter- and multidisciplinary science, definition of ecology, history of ecological science, position of ecology in the recent natural science system, ecology in modern society,
- Plants and vegetation under radiation on habitat, energy of radiation, spatial and temporal variability of radiation, gradients of visible radiation in the vegetation profile, anatomical and functional adaptations on light intensity on site, modulative adaptations, photosynthesis.
- Ecological factors influencing the photosynthesis, energetic balance in plants, photosynthesis dynamics during the vegetation season, photosynthetic capacity and defence from herbivores, variations of photosynthetic process, ecological consequences of diverse photosynthetic paths.
- Temperature as ecological factor, cardinal temperature points, plant adaptations on extreme temperatures on site, relationships between plants and water, water as physical and chemical environment, soil-plant-atmosphere continuum, water economy in plants, water pump, stomatal control of transpiration, water deficient sites, plant distribution and water, precipitation and interception, air water, climatic diagram, ecological adaptation on water supply.
- Soil and mineral content, soil morphology and classification, soil physical and chemical properties, plant adaptations on extreme soil features.
- Soil acidity, buffer areas and chemical condition of soil, ions transport and absorption, plant response on low nutrition level, plant specific differences on different soil features, interaction between plants and atmospheric gases, bio-geochemical cycles.
- Ecological adaptations and life strategies in plants, life forms and its meaning, systems of life strategies, r- and K- selection, C-R-S life strategies model, system of phanerogames and cryptogames as life strategies, life strategies spectres and its meaning, plant secondary metabolism, secondary metabolites.
- Extreme ecological factors, fire, drought, stagnating water, shadowing, low nutrition supply, heavy metals, salinity, atmosphere pollutants, trampling, temperature extremes, ecology of reproduction, benefits of sexual reproduction, reproduction limits, monocarpy and polycarpy, seed dormancy and seed bank.
- Population ecology, plant population structure, elements of population structure, impact of herbivores on plant population structure, dynamics of plant population and related ecological factors.
- Ecology of plant communities, basic theories of plant sociology, plant sociology classification system, vegetation mapping, succession and methods of research, introduction to vegetation distribution in Croatia.
Zoological part:
- Abiotic factors, ecological valence, ecological niche.
- Population parameters: population density, factors affecting population density, population structure, life cycles, survivorship curves,
- Interspecific and intraspecific relationship.
- Biodiversity.
- The concept of the ecosystems.
- Macro ecosystem arrangement and basic characteristics.
- Feeding relationship and strategy, food-chain.
- Community metabolism
- Primary and secondary production.
- Community structure.
- Human impact and global changes.
- Freshwater ecosystems.
- Human impact on freshwater ecosystems.
- Global changes

Include written essay on proposed subjects and presentation
New themes each term

- Soil moisture, soil retention capacity, ecological unavailable water.
- Soil texture, calcium carbonate., retention capacity, soil moisture.
- Actual and substitution acidity, organic matter in soil.
- Soil adsorption capacity, cationic exchange capacity.
- Transpiration, evaporation, relative air moisture, measure of chlorophyll a and b.
- Ecological unavailable water,
- Phytosociological record: vegetation sampling.
- Ideal plankton;
- Population density methods;
- Distribution patterns
- Predation
- Secondary production;
- Similarity Index
  1. Smith R.L., Smith T.M., 2000: Elements of Ecology. Benjamin/Cummings Science Publishing
  2. Crawley M. (ed.), 1998: Plant Ecology. Blackwell Science, Oxford.
  3. Ternjej, I; Brigić, A; Gottstein, S; Ivković, M; Kerovec, M; Mihaljević, Z; Previšić, A .: Terenske i laboratorijske vježbe i statističke metode u ekologiji
  4. Kerovec,M., l988: Ekologija kopnenih voda. Mala ekološka biblioteka, Knjiga 3, Hrvatsko ekološko društvo, Zagreb, str. 1-75.
  5. Steubing L. & H. O. Schwantes, 1992: Ökologische Botanik. 3. Aufl. Verlag Quelle & Meyer, Wiesbaden.
  6. Steubing L. & A. Fangmeier, 1992: Pflanzenökologisches Praktikum. Verlag Eugen Ulmer. Stuttgart.
  7. Schultze E.-D., E. Beck, K. Müller-Hohenstein, 2002: Pflanzenzökologie. Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, Heidelberg-Berlin.
  8. Gračanin M. & LJ. Ilijanić, 1977: Uvod u ekologiju bilja. Školska knjiga, Zagreb
  9. Stevanović B. & M. Janković, 2001: Ekologija biljaka. NNK International, Beograd.
Prerequisit for:
Enrollment :
Passed : Algae and Fungi
Passed : Invertebrates
Passed : Microbiology
Attended : Field Course in Systematic Botany and Vertebrates
Attended : Systematic Botany
Attended : Vertebrates

Examination :
Passed : Systematic Botany
Passed : Vertebrates
8. semester
Mandatory course - Regular study - Biology and Chemistry Education
Consultations schedule: