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Comparative Immunology

Code: 45059
ECTS: 5.0
Lecturers in charge: prof. dr. sc. Nada Oršolić
Lecturers: dr. sc. Kristina Dominko - Practicum
Take exam: Studomat
English level:


All teaching activities will be held in Croatian. However, foreign students in mixed groups will have the opportunity to attend additional office hours with the lecturer and teaching assistants in English to help master the course materials. Additionally, the lecturer will refer foreign students to the corresponding literature in English, as well as give them the possibility of taking the associated exams in English.

1. komponenta

Lecture typeTotal
Lectures 30
Practicum 15
* Load is given in academic hour (1 academic hour = 45 minutes)
Students will be able to:
1.To understand the evolution of the immune system and the selection guidelines in its development
2.Understand the basic characteristics and mechanisms underlying the non-specific immune responses invertebrates and lower vertebrates,
3.Understand the basic characteristics and mechanisms of development of specific immunity in the lower vertebrates
4.Understand the mechanisms of defense invertebrates a and lower vertebrates from infection, tumors, mechanisms to preserve antigenic and genetic homeostasis.
5.Understand and be able to interpret scientific papers in the field of comparative immunology invertebrates and lower vertebrates
6.Studens will be able to apply the methods in the study of immune defense response invertebrates and lower vertebrates

1. Evolution of Immunity,
2. Invertebrate Immunity, Cells and Tissues of Invertebrate Immune Systems-Role(s) in immunity/Functions, Classification of blood cells in Invertebrates,
3. Naturally occurring defence factors, Inducible humoral defence factors, Non-self recognition and cell-cell cooperation and mediated by various factors,
4. The cellular and humoral defence reactions on parasites, Cytokines, Allogenic and xenogenic graft rejection, Evidence for evolution of immunoglobulin supergene family molecules in invertebrates,
5. Vertebrate Immunity, Origin of the adaptive immune system, Evolution of the Major Histocompatibility Complex, The MHC in the ectothermic vertebrate-xenopus, MHC in other vertebrates, T-cell evolution,
6. Evolution of B cells and immunoglobulins, Organization of immunoglobulin genes in vertebrates, Imunoglobulins of elasmobranchs, teleosts, lungfish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals, The generation of antibody diversity ,
7. Cells of the non-adaptive immune system, Non-antigen-specific molecule, Complement cllassical, alternative and lytic pathways in vertebrates, Function of Cytokines, Anti-microbial peptides,
8. Evolution of lymphomyeloid tissues in vertebrates (thymus, spleen, lymphomyeloid nodes, gut-associated lymphoid tissue, kidney , liver, i bone marrow),
9. The Immune System of Amphibians, Amphibian models for studyng ontogeny of immunity, Ontogeny of alloimmunity, self- and allotolerance and antibody production,
10. The Immune System of fish,
11. The Immune System of Reptiles and Birds,
12. The Immune System of Mammals.

The practical part of the course includes an overview of lymphatic tissue, organs, and immune cells from the class as follows: Insecta, Amphibia,Sauropsida/Reptilia, Aves, Pisces, Mammalia

1. Anatomy of gut-associated lymphoid tissues and organs (Gut-associated lymphoid tissue, GALT)
2. Isolation of lymphoid organs and gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) for histological analysis
3. Microscopy and analysis of histological preparations lymphoid organs and gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT)
4. Sampling and preparation of hemolymph and blood smears for white blood cell differential count analysis
5. Microscoping and analysis of white blood cell differential count
  1. Roitt I, Brustoff J, Male D. 2001. Immmunology. 6th ed. Mosby, Edinburgh, UK
  2. Turner RJ. 1995. Immunology. A comparative approach, Wiley & Sons, New York, USA
  3. Kuby J. 2007. Immunology. 6rd ed. W.H. Freeman and company, New York
2. semester
Izborni predmeti - Regular module - Physiology and Immunobiology
Consultations schedule: