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Systematic Botany

Code: 40340
ECTS: 7.0
Lecturers in charge: prof. dr. sc. Toni Nikolić
Lecturers: dr. sc. Ivana Rešetnik - Practicum

izv. prof. dr. sc. Ivan Radosavljević - Lectures
Take exam: Studomat
English level:


All teaching activities will be held in Croatian. However, foreign students in mixed groups will have the opportunity to attend additional office hours with the lecturer and teaching assistants in English to help master the course materials. Additionally, the lecturer will refer foreign students to the corresponding literature in English, as well as give them the possibility of taking the associated exams in English.

1. komponenta

Lecture typeTotal
Lectures 30
Practicum 60
* Load is given in academic hour (1 academic hour = 45 minutes)
Learning outcomes

Participants will be able to

1. List the main features of the different classification systems and explain the principal methods of systematic botany
2. Connect the historical sequence of significant discoveries in the development of systematic botany with emphasis on artificial, phenetic and phylogenetic concepts
3. Distinguish basic nomenclature solutions in the formal taxa descriptions, and the role of the Nomenclature code in botany
4. Describe the main evolutionary trends in terrestrial plants
5. Distinguish the basic types and principles of generation exchanges, give the examples, explain their basics structure and their role in the evolution
6. Show the structure and main features of main evolutionary lines of terrestrial plants (i.e. mosses, gymnosperms, angiosperms) and selected families
7. Show comparative structure and evolutionary sequences of major organs and organ systems (eg. from megasporangia to ovule)
8. Use laboratory equipment and techniques in analyzing plants, as wel as on-line resources
9. Handle plant material and illustrate / sketch the main features of selected plants
10. Analyze the structure of representatives of typical families

Course content


1. Introductory lecture, basic information about the course, required and optional reading, online resources, supplies and materials, programs, student requirements. Basic definitions, significance, hierarchical systems, classification systems and naming, informative features, the process and methods in systematic botany, phylogenetic terminology, examples.
2. Historical review of the development of systematic knowledge about plants, artificial systems, natural systems, phylogenetic systems
3. Nomenclature and determination, herbarium collections - the role, importance, scope, Index herbariorum, herbarium collections in Croatia, nomenclature code, authorization, pre-emptive right, typification, synonyms, international organizations and associations
4. Main group, macro classification, the World flora, flora of Croatia, diversity, endemism, main elements of economic botany, kingdoms, older nomenclature, basics of phylogenetic relationships
5. Generations exchanges - the secret life of plants, the features if the sporophyte and gametophyte, izosporous and heterosporous alternation of generations, endosporous and egsosporous development, representation in main groups, deviations
6. Bryophyta s.l. - mosses, phylogenetic relations, the main group features, the diversity and ecology, classification, relationship between gamatophyte and sporophyte; Marchantiidae, Bryiidae, anatomy, morphology, reproduction
7. Pterydophyta s. l.; ferns, basic characteristics, classification, evolution; Lycopodiidae, Monilophytae, morphology, generation exchange, propagation
8. Gymnospermae, the main features, alternation of generations, morphology, ovule, diversity (Gnetidae, Pinidae, Ginkgoidae, Cycadidae
9. Angiospermae I - comparative advantages, sporogenesis, gametogenesis, embryogenesis, gynoeceum
10. Angiospermae II - androeceum, sporogenesis, gametogenesis, pollen, flower, pollination
11. Angiospermae III - fertilization, emergence of seeds, fruit structures, classification of fruits, flowers and inflorescences
12. Angiospermae IV - overview of major groups I: Lauraceae, Ranunculaceae, Fagaceae, Betulaceae
13. Angiospermae V - overview of major groups II: Rosaceae, Fabaceae, Apiaceae, Rutaceae, Malvaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Salicaceae, Brassicaceae, Primulaceae
14. Angiospermae VI - overview of major groups III: Caryophyllaceae, Cactaceae, Composite, Solanaceae, Lamiaceae
15. Angiospermae VII - overview of major groups IV: Arecaceae, Cyperaceae, Poaceae, Liliaceae s.l., Iridaceae, Orchidaceae


Practical work with fresh and preserved plant material:

1. Morphology, alternation of generations
a. Bryophyta s. l., Hepaticae, Marchantia polymorpha
2. Main characteristics of families, morphology, alternation of generations
a. Bryophyta s. s., Musci, Funaria sp.
b. Lycopsida, Lycopodiaceae, Lycopodium sp.
c. Lycopsida, Selaginellaceae, Selaginella sp.
3. Main characteristics of families, morphology, alternation of generations
a. Equisetaceae, Equisetum sp.
b. Ophioglossaceae, Ophioglossum sp.
c. Polypodiaceae s.l., Polypodium sp., Adiantum capilus-veneris
4. Main characteristics of families, morphology, alternation of generations
a. Marsileaceae, Marsilea quadrifolia
b. Salviniaceae, Salvinia natans , Azolla sp.
c. Ginkgoaceae, Ginkgo biloba
d. Pinaceae, Pinus sp.
5. Main characteristics of families, morphology, systematics, alternation of generations
a. Cupressaceae, Juniperus sp.
b. Taxaceae, Taxus baccata
c. Cycadaceae, Cycas sp., Ceratozamia sp.
d. Ephedraceae, Ephedra sp.
e. Gnetaceae, Gnetum sp.
f. Welwitschiaceae, Welwitschia miriabilis
6. Main characteristics of families, morphology, systematics
a. Magnoliaceae, Magnolia sp.
b. Ranunculaceae, Helleborus sp.
c. Salicaceae, Salix sp.
d. Rosaceae, Prunoideae, Prunus sp.
e. Rosaceae, Maloideae, Malus sp.
7. Main characteristics of families, morphology, systematics
a. Fagaceae, Quercus sp.
b. Betulaceae, Betula pendula, Carpinus sp.
c. Violaceae, Viola sp.
8. Glavne karakteristike porodica, morfologija, sistematika
a. Ranunculaceae, Ranunculus sp.
b. Fagaceae, Fagus sylvatica
c. Euphorbiaceae, Euphorbia sp.
d. Boraginaceae, Symphytum officinale
9. Main characteristics of families, morphology, systematics
a. Fabaceae, Petteria ramentacea
b. Orchidaceae, Orchis sp.
c. Alliaceae, Allium ursinum
d. Cyperaceae, Carex sp.
10. Main characteristics of families, morphology, systematics
a. Iridaceae , Iris sp.
b. Lamiaceae, Lamium maculatum, Salvia sp.
c. Cichoriaceae, Taraxacum officinale
d. Asteraceae, Bellis perennis
11. Main characteristics of families, morphology, systematics
a. Rosaceae, Rosoideae, Rosa sp.
b. Brassicaceae, Capsella bursa-pastoris
c. Caryophyllaceae, Lychnis viscaria
d. Apiaceae, Anthriscus sylvester
12. Main characteristics of families, morphology, systematics
a. Poaceae
b. Campanulaceae, Campanula sp.
c. Scrophulariaceae, Cymbalaria muralis
13. Main characteristics of families, morphology, systematics
a. Solanaceae, Physalis sp.
  1. Nikolić, T. (2013): Sistematska botanika - raznolikost i evolucija biljnog svijeta. Alfa d.d., 1-882. Zagreb (udžbenik).
  2. Nikolić T. (2013): Praktikum sistematske botanike - Raznolikost i evolucija biljnog svijeta. Alfa, Zagreb, 1 - 256.
  3. Nikolić T. ed. (2007-): Botanički praktikum On-Line. (hypertext dokument http://www.botanic.hr/praktikum/home.htm), PMF, Zagreb
  4. Pavletić Z. (1968): Flora mahovine Jugoslavije. Institut za botaniku Sveučilišta u Zagrebu, Zagreb.
  5. Šugar I. (1990): Latinsko-hrvatski i hrvatsko-latinski botanički leksikon. JAZU, Zagreb.
  6. Nikolić, T. (2006): Flora. Priručnik za inventarizaciju i praćenje stanja. Državni zavod za zaštitu prirode, Zagreb.
  7. Nikolić T. (1996): Herbarijski priručnik. Školska knjiga, Zagreb.
Prerequisit for:
Enrollment :
Passed : Plant Morphology and Anatomy
6. semester
Mandatory course - Regular study - Biology
Consultations schedule: