COURSE GOALS: Developing skills of safe handling of laboratory equipment and chemicals. Developing skills of observation and exercising to record changes during the experiment. Developing the ability to describe observed changes as well as to interpret them on the basis of adopted theories and models. Exercising how to present the experimental results and measured data in the form of tables and graphs. Developing skills of schematic representation of laboratory equipment. Developing the ability of logical reasoning, critical and creative thinking. Adopting the skill of working according to instructions and developing problem-solving skills.
LEARNING OUTCOMES AT THE LEVEL OF THE PROGRAMME:
2. APPLYING KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING
2.1 identify the essentials of a process/situation and set up a working model of the same or recognize and use the existing models
2.4 adapt available models to new experimental data
2.6 perform experiments independently using standard techniques, as well as to describe, analyze and critically evaluate experimental data
3. MAKING JUDGEMENTS
3.1 work with a high degree of autonomy, even accepting responsibilities in project planning and in the managing of structures
4. COMMUNICATION SKILLS
4.2 present one's own research or literature search results to professional as well as to lay audiences
5. LEARNING SKILLS
5.1 search for and use physical and other technical literature, as well as any other sources of information relevant to research work and technical project development (good knowledge of technical English is required)
LEARNING OUTCOMES SPECIFIC FOR THE COURSE:
Upon completion of the course student will be able to:
1. Use laboratory equipment and chemicals according to safety guidelines.
2. Assemble simple apparatus independently, according to instructions, while being familiar with the purpose of certain apparatus parts.
3. Perform simple experiments independently according to instructions.
4. Analyze and critically judge measured data.
5. Combine theoretical background with performed experiment.
6. Show the results of performed work in the form of a report.
1. Burner flame characteristics: getting acquainted with common laboratory equipment used for heating, its purpose and safe way of handling it.
2. Laboratory glassware: getting acquainted with common laboratory glassware and exercising how to present it schematically. Making certain pieces of laboratory glass equipment.
3. Measuring mass: getting acquainted with laboratory balances. Measuring mass of different pieces of laboratory equipment.
4. Decantation and filtration: separating components of a mixture. Within this exercise student has to, according to instructions, assemble filtration apparatus.
5. Recrystallization: separating a mixture of solids based on differences in solubility of its components.
6. Sublimation: separating a mixture of solids based on the sublimation of one of its components.
7. Distillation: components of solution are separated based on differences in volatility. Within this exercise student has to, according to instructions, assemble distillation apparatus.
8. Density determination by pycnometer method: determining the density of the sample of unknown metal. Based on the measurements, which should be critically analyzed and judged, and calculations student should identify the metal.
9. Determination of a melting point: determining the melting point of unknown solid in the Thiele tube. Based on the measurements, which should be critically analyzed and judged, and their comparison with the data available in the literature student should identify the solid.
10. Determination of the molar enthalpy of solution (heat of solution): The temperature of the calorimeter before, during and after complete dissolution of the sample of unknown salt is measured. Based on the measurements, a graph (temperature vs. time) is plotted and the molar enthalpy of solution (heat of solution) is calculated. Within this exercise student has to, according to instructions, assemble a calorimeter.
11. Determination of the molar mass of a volatile liquid by Dumas method: the method is based on determination of the mass and of the volume of a volatile liquid at boiling point of water. Based on the measurements, which should be critically analyzed and judged, and by applying appropriate corrections student has to calculate the molar mass of an unknown liquid.
12. Preparation of oxygen, O2: in laboratory, oxygen is produced by thermal decomposition of potassium permanganate. Within this exercise student has to, according to instructions, assemble appropriate apparatus.
13. Determination of the thickness of aluminum foil: volume of hydrogen, produced by the reaction of hydrochloric acid and aluminum foil, is measured. Based on the measurement, while being familiar with the aluminum density and by applying appropriate corrections student has to calculate the aluminum foil thickness.
14. Preparation of ammonia, NH3: in laboratory, ammonia is produced by the reaction of concentrated ammonia solution and solid sodium hydroxide. Within this exercise student has to, according to instructions, assemble appropriate apparatus.
15. Standardization of acid solution: solution of hydrochloric acid (HCl) is prepared. Volumes of this solution required for complete neutralization of certain volumes of sodium carbonate solutions of known composition are measured. Based on the measurements, which should be critically analyzed and judged, the concentration of hydrochloric acid solution is calculated.
16. Determination of the composition of NaOH solution: solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) of unknown composition is prepared. Volumes of hydrochloric acid solution (previously standardized) required for complete neutralization of certain volumes of sodium hydroxide solution are measured. Based on the measurements (and by critically analyzing and judging them) the composition of NaOH solution is determined.
17. Common ion effect and the solubility of sodium chloride: the effect of common ions, i.e. chloride anions or sodium cations, on the solubility of sodium chloride is investigated.
18. Electrolysis in a cell with an active anode: electrolysis of diluted sulfuric acid is conducted in a cell having a graphite cathode and a copper anode. Student is expected to observe, record and explain changes occurring at electrodes during the experiment.
19. Electrolysis in a cell with inactive electrodes: electrolysis of a sodium chloride solution is conducted in a cell having graphite electrodes. Student is expected to observe, record and explain changes occurring at electrodes during the experiment.
20. Faraday's laws of electrolysis: determining the molar mass of copper based on Faraday's laws of electrolysis.
21. Relative strength of oxidizing and reducing agents: based on experiments Mg, Fe, Pb i Cu should be arranged in a series according to their reducing abilities, while Mg2+, Fe2+, Pb2+ i Cu2+ ions should be arranged in a series according to their oxidizing abilities.
22. Galvanic cell: construction of galvanic cell (voltaic cell) and measurement of the cell potential.
REQUIREMENTS FOR STUDENTS:
Student has to carry out laboratory exercises planned by the program. As well, student has to pass a test prior to each exercise and has to submit written reports about conducted experiments.
GRADING AND ASSESSING THE WORK OF STUDENTS:
During the semester student has to pass tests and has to submit written reports on completed experiments. During the laboratory work, performance of each student is monitored (following laboratory rules, keeping accurate laboratory records, precision and accuracy of measurement, skill of assembling apparatus according to instructions, ability to observe and logically conclude based on previous knowledge, ability to conduct calculations independently based on theoretical background). All previously elaborated factors contribute to a final grade.
- M. Sikirica, B. Korpar-Čolig: Praktikum iz opće i anorganske kemije, Školska knjiga, Zagreb, 2005.
- M. Sikirica: Zbirka kemijskih pokusa za osnovnu i srednju školu, Školska knjiga, Zagreb, 2011.
- M. S. Silberberg, Chemistry: the molecular nature of matter and change, sva izdanja, McGraw-Hill, NewYork.
- T. Cvitaš, I. Planinić i N. Kallay, Rješavanje računskih zadataka u kemiji, I.i II. dio, HKD, Zagreb, 2008.