The goal of this module is adopting the basic knowledge about the usage of ionizing radiation in diagnostics radiology and radiotherapy. Also, students should understand and be able to do the measurements of basic dosimetry quantities used. The models used for determining the risk of ionizing radiation exposure will be introduced as well as recommendations for safe use of ionizing radiation from the international regulatory bodies. Learning outcomes should be:
* To adopt the basics on diagnostic and therapeutic methods used in medicine based on ionizing radiation application.
* To describe ionizing radiation generators used in medicine.
* To understand the role and duties of a medical physicist.
* To understand the physical quantities used in biological radiation effects measurement.
* To understand the interaction of tissues and different types of radiation that is fundamental for all diagnostic and therapeutic methods in medicine.
* To apply the principles of radiation protection in procedures developed to ensure the safe usage of ionizing radiation. To understand the importance of these procedures for worker's and patient's safety.
* To apply the acquired knowledge in medical physics in practice. To continue to expand the knowledge.
Content: Basic radiation physics in medicine, historical overview of ionizing radiation applications in medicine, types of ionizing radiation and how it's generated, interaction with matter, physical quantities and units in measuring biological effects of radiation, basics of radiobiology, radiation detection and detectors, physical basics of x-ray radiation in diagnostics: X-ray tube, generation and characteristics of xray beam (intensity and penetration of the beam), X-ray units for classical radiography: conventional, digital, X-ray units for special applications (mammography, fluoroscopy, classic tomography), physical and geometric conditions for image formation, characteristics of imaged object, image sharpness and contrast, artifacts, computer tomography, comparison of classic and computed tomography, the role of medical physicist, physical basics of the radiation application in radiotherapy, treatment machines for radiotherapy (linear accelerator of electrons, Co-60, brachytherapy), radiation beams used in radiotherapy, the change of beam intensity in tissues, radiotherapy treatment planning (the goal of radiotherapy, radiotherapy techniques, calculation of the absorbed dose distribution, patient immobilization during the treatment, TPS algorithms, Introduction to Monte Carlo simulations), quality control of the radiotherapy machines, the role of medical physicist, basic principles and concepts in radiation dosimetry, particle and energy flow, stochastic nature of dose deposition, definition of dosimetry quantities, absorbed dose, kerma, exposition,definitions of special dosimetry quantities used in radiological techniques in medicine, relation of photon flow and dosimetry quantities, karma and absorbed dose, charged particles equilibrium, relation of particle flow and absorbed dose (electrons), stopping power and coma, delta electron equilibrium, introduction to cavity theory, cavity theory for large photon detectors, Bragg-Gray cavity theory, Spencer-Attix modification of Bragg-Gray theory, Burlin cavity theory, general cavity theory, Fan theorem, Introduction to Monte Carlo simulation and its medical applications, absorbed dose measurement, protocols for the measurement of absorbed dose in photon and electron beams used in medicine, radiation protection in medicine, examples of good and bad practices, legal basis of radiation protection in Croatia.