1. The concept and brief historical development of physiology. Principles of connection of structure and function (homeostasis, minimum consumption of energy and matter, rationality and function assurance), physiology of organism in the strategy of physiological events, chemical and physical principles in physiology.
2. Transport mechanisms in cells and tissues. Physiology of membrane structures. Origin and significance of electrical gradient, bioelectricity and membrane potential.
3. Generation of action potential and signals on membrane structures. Physiology of animal organ systems and integrative physiology.
4. Communication within and between neurons. Signal transmission. General physiological properties of the senses. Chemical senses. Mechanical senses. Temperature senses. Vision.
5. Functions of the autonomic nervous system. Central integrative systems.
6. Endocrine control mechanisms, pituitary gland, adrenal gland, pancreas.
7. Hypothalamic control. Neurohormones. Cellular mechanisms of hormone action. Physiological effects of hormones. Glands with external secretion. Excretion energy.
8. Foundations of muscle contraction. Mechanics and regulation of muscle contraction. Energy of muscle contraction. Physiology of smooth, transversely striated and cardiac muscles.
9. Heart, General Circulatory System. Cardiac physiology. Hemodynamics. Peripheral circulation. Circulation regulation.
10. Breathing and breath control. Gas exchange regulation.
11. Physiology of digestion.
12. Kidneys-electrolyte balance and regulation of acid-base balance; calcium, phosphorus and homeostasis of the skeletal system, regulation of body temperature.
13. Blood and its physiological role; organism defense and immune response.
14. Physiology of reproduction; pregnancy, fetal development and lactation; physiology of sexuality and human sexual response, sexual dysfunction, contraception.
15. Analysis of the basic principles of interdependence of material and function.
1. Laboratory animals (mice, rats, frogs). Handling animals.
2. Animal maintenance. Highly related strains. Methods of administration, anesthesia and analgesia of animals. Animal Welfare Act.
3. Transfer of matter across the membrane. Diffusion of dye in agar. Behavior of erythrocytes in solutions of different tonicity.
4. Blood cell count.
5. Preparation of differential blood count (DKS). DKS staining. DKS review.
6. Types of blood cells - a comparison of vertebrates and invertebrates.
7. Hematocrit. Erythrocyte sedimentation. Serum and plasma. Demonstration of fibrinogen by Howe. Bleeding time and clotting time.
8. Breathing. Donders' lung model. Qualitative proof of CO2 in inspirational and expiratory air.
9. Pulmonary volumes and capacities - static spirometry.
10. Kidneys. Serum and plasma buffering properties. Acid-base balance.
11. Nerve impulse. Neuromuscular connection. Cessation of conduction of impulses through the narcotic nerve. Muscles.
12. Myographic curve. Contraction of chilled and warmed muscle Dependence of the size of muscle contraction on the strength of the stimulus. Impulse summation.
13. Heart. Contraction of an isolated heart. The law of "all or nothing" on the frog's heart. Effect of elevated and lowered temperature on heart rate. Influence of calcium and potassium ions on heart function. Influence of sympathetic and parasympathetic on heart function. Centers of heart automation - Stannius ligatures. Premature systole.
15. Digestion. Insulin and diabetes.