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Fundamentals of Histology and Embryology

Code: 63512
ECTS: 4.0
Lecturers in charge: izv. prof. dr. sc. Romana Gračan
Lecturers: dr. sc. Andreja Lucić - Practicum
Take exam: Studomat
English level:


The lecturer is not able to offer courses in English at this time.

1. komponenta

Lecture typeTotal
Lectures 30
Practicum 30
* Load is given in academic hour (1 academic hour = 45 minutes)
1. to describe how to prepare animal tissues for light microscopy
2. to recognize the type of animal tissues under microscope
3. to recognize the microscopic structure of most animal organs
4. to describe basic developmental processes and embryonic stages of man and animals


1. Basic classification of animal tissues. The principles of preparative techniques.
2. Epithelial tissues (basement membrane, intercellular and luminal surfaces).
3. Connective tissues (types of cells and the structure of ground substance, forming of the collagen). Adipose tissue. Bone marrow. Blood.
4. Muscle tissue (skeletal, smooth, cardiac: the principles of contraction). Nervous tissue (neurones, nerve fibres, neuroglia, synapses).
5. Immune system (cells, diffuse lymphoid tissues, lymphoid organs).
6. Gastrointestinal tract and glands (liver and pancreas).
7. Respiratory system: the structure of conducting system and respiratory zone.
8. Urinary system: the structure of nephrons and juxtaglomerular apparatus in kidney.
9. Endocrine glands and diffuse neuroendocrine system.
10. Reproductive system. Functional structure of the testis and ovaries. Gametogenesis.
11. Functional structure of the oviducts and uterus. The menstrual cycle and its hormonal regulation.
12. Types of egg cells. Fertilisation.
13. Patterns of animal cleavage.
14. Gastrulation and neurulation. Germ layer formation and their derivatives.
15. Developmental processes in animals: cell to cell interactions (inductions) and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions.

1. Tissue sampling, choice of fixatives, tissue embedding in paraffin blocks, tissue freezing, sectioning tissues: microtome and cryostat, tissue staining: routine and specialized stains.
2. Light microscopy. Structure of epithelial and connective tissues.
3. Dense connective tissues: bone and cartilage.
4. Structure of muscle and neural tissue.
5. Structure of blood vessels, blood cells; bone marrow.
6. Immune system: thymus, lymph nodes, spleen.
7. Structure of digestive tract: oesophagus, stomach, small intestine.
8. Structure of digestive glands: liver and pancreas.
9. Urinary system: kidney. Respiratory system: trachea and lungs.
10. Endocrine system: hypophysis, adrenal gland, thyroid gland.
11. Reproductive system: structure of ovaries and testes.
12. Female reproductive tract: structure of oviduct and uterus: fertilisation, blastocyst development.
13. Implantation and differentiation of extraembryonic tissues.
14. Gastrulation and beginning of organogenesis.
  1. Wheater's Functional Histology a text and colour atlas, ed. B. Young, J.W. Heath, Churchill Livingstone, London, 2001
  2. CD i interna skripta s predavanjima i protokolima praktikuma
  3. Junqueira L. C., Carneiro J.: Osnove histologije, udžbenik i atlas. Školska knjiga, Zagreb, 2005
Prerequisit for:
Enrollment :
Passed : Cell Biology
Attended : Human Anatomy
4. semester
Mandatory course - Regular study - Biology and Chemistry Education
Consultations schedule:
  • izv. prof. dr. sc. Romana Gračan:

    Wednesday and Friday, 10-12 a.m.