Mechanisms of Human Diseases


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Mechanisms of Human Diseases

Code: 239990
ECTS: 3.0
Lecturers in charge: izv. prof. dr. sc. Filip Sedlić
Take exam: Studomat

1. komponenta

Lecture typeTotal
Lectures 30
* Load is given in academic hour (1 academic hour = 45 minutes)
Students should acquire capacity to understand:
1. general disease elements and mechanisms,
2. specific processes underlying common human diseases.

1. Introduction. Health and diseases: principles of homeostasis (feedback and feedforward regulatory loops); dynamic systems; normal range; laboratory data quality control; mechanisms of adaptation; autophagy; unfolded protein response; hypertrophy; hyperplasia; atrophy; dystrophy; non-linear responses of biological systems; ageing.
2. Disease etiology and pathogenesis: genetic, epigenetic and environmental (physical, chemical and biological) factors; infection; oxidative stress.
3. Energy metabolism disorders: ischemia-reperfusion injury; hypoxia; hypoglycemia; anemia; calcium overload; reactive oxygen species; mitochondrial permeability transition pore, preconditioning.
4. Disorders of osmolarity, body fluid compartments and electrolytes: edema (hemodynamic, oncodynamic, lymphodynamic and angiomural); disorders of osmolarity and hydration; hypovolemia; disorders of potassium; disorders of calcium (disorders of vitamin D and parathyroid hormone).
5. Acid-base disorders: metabolic and respiratory acidosis and alkalosis; lung and kidney diseases; diabetic ketoacidosis; lactacidemia; diarrhea; vomiting.
6. Inflammation and immunity disorders: mechanisms of inflammation; cytokines, inflammatory and immune cells in pathological processes; sepsis; autoimmune diseases; immunodeficiencies; hypersensitivity reactions and allergy.
7. Pathophysiology of cancer: oncogenesis; characteristics of cancer; molecular changes in cancer cells; metabolism of cancer cells.
8. Endocrinopathies: general concepts in hormonal disorders; diabetes mellitus; disorders of: growth hormone, glucocorticoids, sex hormones and thyroid hormones.
9. Cardiovascular diseases: myocardial infarction; cardiomyopathies; cardiac decompensation; arrhythmias; hypertension; atherosclerosis; shock.
10. Respiratory diseases: causes of respiratory disorders; hyper- and hypoventilation; disorders of pulmonary mechanics; disorders of ventilation-perfusion ratio; pulmonary embolism; pneumonia; obstructive and restrictive lung diseases.
Kidney diseases: causes of kidney diseases; disorders of glomerular membrane, nephrotic syndrome and proteinuria, disorders of kidney tubules; renal failure (uremic toxins, electrolyte disorders, blood pressure changes, acid-base disorders).
Gastrointestinal and liver diseases: ulcers and gastrinoma; disorders of digestion and absorption; pancreatitis; ileus; liver failure and cirrhosis (jaundice, encephalopathy, portal hypertension and ascites, metabolic disorders, coagulopathy, hypoalbuminemia).
2. semester
Mandatory course - Regular study - Biomedical Mathematics
Consultations schedule: