The main objective of the course is to familiarize students with the basics of the
dynamics of the atmosphere of a large scale motions, the mesoscale and microscale
dynamics and turbulence. One of the main goals of dynamic meteorology is to interpret
the observed structures of atmospheric motions and the analysis and forecasting
according to the basic laws of physics. For this purpose, in the course framework is
Describe and analyze the quasi-geostrophic processes, define the basic system of quasigeostrophic
Define the deviation from the quasi-geostrophic balance,
Analyze the hydrodynamic and baroclinic instability of the atmosphere,
Define the general circulation of the atmosphere and describe the law of conservation
of the general circulation of the atmosphere,
Define and describe the mesoscale processes,
Analyze and modify the energy and momentum in the stratified fluid,
Describe and analyze the dynamics of two-dimensional buoyancy mountain waves,
Define the basic concepts of nonlinear wave dynamics and hydraulic flow,
Define and describe the concepts related to the atmospheric deep convection,
Define the atmospheric boundary layer, its structure and describe the microscale
To analyze the prognostic equation of the variance for the wind.
Vertical structure of mid-latitude large-scale perturbations. Quasi-geostrophic theory.
Barotropic and baroclinic models of the atmosphere. Hydrodynamic instability of
atmospheric large-scale processes. Baroclinic instability. Conservation of general
circulation. Energy conservation of mid-latitude atmospheric circulation. Introduction of
mesoscale processes. Internal gravity waves. Convection. Atmospheric boundary layer.
Laminar and turbulent motions. Spectral analysis of turbulent motion. Turbulence
kinetic energy. Hypotheses of Taylor and Kolmogorov. Turbulent fluxes. Similarity
theory. Transport and diffusion in the atmosphere. Coastal and mountain circulations.
Three-dimensional modeling of the atmospheric dynamics.
It is expected that after the completion of this course, the students may:
1. be able to define the basic characteristics of large-scale processes,
define the quasi-geostrophic system of equations and interpret individual
members in these equations,
2. differ baroclinic from barotropic instability, can compare dispersion relations
for the short and long waves in the stratified fluid,
3. define assumptions and derive equations for the simple mountain waves and
discuss the differences between non-hydrostatic and hydrostatic flows,
4. apply default assumptions and derive basic system of equations for turbulent
flow,-recognize introduced assumptions and be able to interpret the meaning of
the individual members in the forecasting equation of the variance for the wind,
5. explain the basic processes at different scales of motion and explain the reasons
for the introduction of the assumptions used.
Critical discussions during lecturing, studying notes and references, derivation of
equations and analysis of examples and problems, individual solving of problem tasks.
- J. R. Holton: An Introduction to Dynamic Meteorology, Academic Press Inc., San Diego, 1992 (ili 2004)
- R. B. Stull: An Introduction to Boundary Layer Meteorology, Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1988
- N. Šinik i B. Grisogono: Dinamička meteorologija, Školska knjiga, Zagreb, 2008
- Grisogono, B. i D. Belušić: Uvod u mezoskalnu meteorologiju i atmosfersku turbulenciju, skripte 2009, Geofizički odsjek PMF-a http://www.gfz.hr/osobne_stranice/grisogono/DM4_SKRIPTA.htm
- J. Pedlosky: Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1987
- F. Mesinger: Dinamička meteorologija, Građevinska knjiga, Beograd, 1976
- Brojne internet stranice i ECMWF kursevi