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Code: 46837
ECTS: 6.0
Lecturers in charge: prof. dr. sc. Renata Matoničkin Kepčija
Lecturers: dr. sc. Vesna Gulin Beljak - Practicum
izv. prof. dr. sc. Mirela Sertić Perić - Practicum
Take exam: Studomat

1. komponenta

Lecture typeTotal
Lectures 30
Practicum 45
* Load is given in academic hour (1 academic hour = 45 minutes)

1. To recognize and classify invertebrates in marine, freshwater and terrestrial habitats of Croatia.
2. To compare invertebrate biodiversity between different ecosystems.
3. To know the basic classification of invertebrates with discussion on relationships between groups and hypotheses on Metazoan origin.
4. To analyse basic morphological, anatomical, physiological and ethological adaptations of invertebrates on environmental conditions with detection of their ecological position and significance in ecosystem as the results of evolution-driven changes.
5. To specify basic phases in animal life cycles and to interpret their adaptations using abilities of dissection, observation and annotation.
6. To discuss the invertebrate roles as causes of diseases, but also in production of food and drugs, in obtaining an energy and row materials and in nature protection; to specify the species from their surrounding which man uses for food and healing, and those he treats as pests.
7. To dissect the role of certain invertebrates in food webs on the basis of the knowledge of their structure and function.
8. To explore scientific literature, followed by setting off the research questions and to design, prepare and conduct simple research as a basis for conclusions with answers to research questions.


1. Abundance, distribution and diversity of invertebrates in biosphere and their ecological position. Introduction in invertebrate zoology.
2. Single-cell organization of protozoa. Structural specialisations for living functions in protozoa.
3. Evolution and taxonomy of protozoa. Protozoan taxa that cause infective diseases in humans.
4. Origin of Metazoa and key events in evolution of animals: emergence of multicellularity, its biological and evolutionary significance, interpretations and hypotheses connected to prevalence of multicellularity.
5. Phylogenetic relationships and position of certain taxa, basic principles of their classification. Structural plan, functional organization and invertebrate way of life: symmetry, body size, reproduction and embryonic development, body cavities.

Structural and functional properties and diversity of certain groups. Distribution and ethology, adaptations to environmental conditions. Representatives in Croatian fauna. Ecological importance and significance for humans:
6. Porifera, Mesozoa
7. Cnidaria, Ctenophora
8. Platyhlminthes
9. Nemertea, Aschelminthes
10. Mollusca
11. Annelida, Echiura, Sipuncula
12. Arthropoda (Trilobitomorpha and Cheliceriformes)
13. Arthropoda (Crustacea)
14. Arthropoda (Myriapoda and Hexapoda)
15. Lophophorata, Echinodermata and Hemichordata.

Work in practicum using permanent and temporary microscopic and macroscopic preparations and living material. Microscopic structures of protozoa, invertebrate sections, morphological and anatomical characteristics. Students practice independent observations and knowledge acquisition about functional organization of representative taxa.

1. Protozoa (Flagellated protozoa, Ameboid protozoa and Ciliophora)
2. Protozoa (Sporozoa), Spongia
3. Cnidaria (Anthozoa and Scyphozoa)
4. Cnidaria (Hydrozoa) and Platyhelminthes (Turbellaria)
5. Platyhelminthes (Trematoda and Cestoda)
6. Aschelminthes (Nematoda and Rotifera)
7. Mollusca (Gastropoda)
8. Mollusca (Bivalvia and Cephalopoda)
9. Annelida (Polychaeta and Oligochaeta)
10. Arthropoda (Chelicerata and Crustacea)
11. Arthropoda (Crustacea)
12. Arthropoda (Hexapoda)
13. Arthropoda (Hexapoda)
14. Lophophorata and Echinodermata
15. Overview of preserved material, presentation and use of determination literature
  1. Habdija, I., Primc Habdija, B., Radanović, I., Špoljar, M., Matoničkin Kepčija, R., Vujčić Karlo, S., Miliša, M. Ostojić, A., Sertić Perić, M. (2011): Protista-Protozoa i Metazoa-Invertebrata. Strukture i funkcije.- Alfa d.d., Zagreb, 584 str.
  2. Habdija, I., Primc Habdija, B., Radanović, I., Vidaković, J., Kučinić, M., Špoljar, M., Matoničkin, R., Miliša, M. (2004): Protista-Protozoa i Metazoa-Invertebrata. Funkcionalna građa i praktikum.- Meridijani, Samobor.
Prerequisit for:
Enrollment :
Passed : General Zoology
4. semester
Mandatory course - Regular study - Biology and Chemistry Education
Consultations schedule: