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Plant Physiology

Code: 40874
ECTS: 7.0
Lecturers in charge: prof. dr. sc. Mirta Tkalec
Lecturers: dr. sc. Marija Babić - Practicum
dr. sc. Sandra Vitko - Practicum
Take exam: Studomat
English level:


The lecturer is not able to offer courses in English at this time.

1. komponenta

Lecture typeTotal
Lectures 45
Practicum 45
* Load is given in academic hour (1 academic hour = 45 minutes)
1. Explain terms and concepts in plant physiology with appropriate interpretation.
2. Explain principles and processes relevant for functioning of plant cell and whole plants.
3. Analyze correlations between structure and function at cell and plant level.
4. Use plant material, laboratory equipment and methods applied in plant physiology.
5. Perform laboratory experiments related to plant physiology.
6. Analyze results of experiments to come to the relevant conclusions.
7. Apply practical skills in solving problems in plant physiology.


Studying physical processes of individual plant cells, tissues, organs and whole plant. Understanding regulation mechanisms of physiological and metabolic processes as well as plant responses to variations in the environmental conditions.

1. Introduction to plant physiology. Plant cell - function of membranes, plastids, microbodies, vacuoles and cytoskeleton.
2. Cell wall - function and biosynthesis, surface protection compounds.
3. Water and plant cells - water absorption, movement and loss.
4. Mineral nutrition - essential nutrients. Solute transport across membranes. Mycorrhiza. Carnivorous plants.
5. Assimilation of mineral nutrients (nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus, oxygen, cations). Biological nitrogen fixation.
6. Photosynthesis - organisation of photosynthetic apparatus, photochemical reactions.
7. The Calvin cycle and its regulation. Photorespiration. C3, C4 and CAM plants.
8. Synthesis of starch and sucrose. Physiological and ecological aspects of photosynthesis. Assimilate translocation in the phloem. Photosynthesis in prokaryotes.
9. Respiration process in plant. Respiration of intact plant and tissues. Lipid metabolism. Heterotrophy in plants.
10. Growth, differentiation and development. Plant signalling.
11. Plant hormones (metabolism, transport, physiological effects): auxins and gibberellins.
12. Plant hormones: cytokinins, abscisic acid, ethylene and brassinosteroids.
13. Secondary metabolism in plants, plant defense mechanisms.
14. Effects of light on plant growth and development. Control of flowering.
15. Stress physiology. Physiology of movement.

Application of obtained theoretical knowledge in laboratory work, with achieving practical skills in using laboratory equipment and methods.

1. Introduction to the good laboratory practice. Microscopic identification of specific plant cell structures.
2. Qualitative and quantitative determination of carbohydrates and organic acids in plant tissues.
3. Water in plant cells. Plasmolysis. Determination of osmotic potential in plant cells.
4. Cohesion-tension theory. Transpiration. Guttation. Measurement of stomatal apertures.
5. Identification and function of some cations and anions in plant cells and tissues.
6. Preparation of plant material for analyses. Lyophilization. Plant extraction and isolation of plant pigments.
7. Separation and identification of plant pigments by thin-layer chromatography.
8. Spectrophotometric determination of photosynthetic pigments absorption spectra.
9. Determination of photosynthesis rate by oxygen electrode.
10. Starch evidence in leaves. Spectrophotometric determination of amylase activity.
11. Starch synthesis by starch phosphorylase. Proteins in plant tissues.
12. Determination of plant respiration. Model of respiratory chain.
13. Effects of auxin, gibberellin, cytokinins and ethylene.
14. Determination of plant secondary metabolites.
15. Plant movements.
  1. PEVALEK-KOZLINA, B., 2003: Fiziologija bilja. Profil, Zagreb.
  2. Praktikum iz fiziologije bilja. Interna skripta Prirodoslovno-matematičkog fakulteta Sveučilišta u Zagrebu.
  3. Znanstveni članci i ostali izvori dostupni putem web stranica kolegija Fiziologija bilja: http://www.pmf.unizg.hr/biol i http://merlin.srce.hr/
Prerequisit for:
Enrollment :
Passed : Fundamentals of Biochemistry
6. semester
Mandatory course - Regular study - Biology
Consultations schedule: