1. Ecology as an inter- and multidisciplinary science, definition of ecology, development of ecology as a science, ecology classification, meaning of ecology in modern society, basic concepts in ecology, biotic and abiotic ecological factors
2. Solar radiation as an ecological factor, plants and vegetation under the influence of habitat radiation, radiation energy, temporal and spatial variability of radiation, solar constant, influence of radiation on plants, photosynthesis, three metabolic pathways of CO2 binding in photosynthesis, ecological factors influencing photosynthesis, anatomical and functional adaptations of plants on light intensity on site
3. Temperature as an ecological factor, soil temperature, physiological significance of temperature, cardinal temperature points, adaptations of plants to extreme temperatures in the habitat, thermal acclimation, plant temperature
Water and humidity as ecological factors, functions of water in plants, annual precipitation range in the World, climadiagrams, types of phytoclimate, precipitation types, possibility of controlling and balancing the process of receiving and losing water from the organism, water deficient sites, plant distribution and water, soil retention capacity
4. Soil as an ecological factor, soil formation (pedogenesis), soil composition, physicochemical properties of soil, soil morphology, basic soil plants, acidic soil plants, metallophytes, ruderal plants, weeds, psammophytes and halophytes
5. Ellenberger indicator values, biotic factors, interspecies relations, mutual relations between plants, relations between plants and microorganisms, life forms of plants, life strategies of plants (C-S-R strategies)
6. Ecology of plant communities, history of phytocenology, classification of plant communities, Braun-Blanquet (Zurich Montpellier) methodology, vegetation dynamics, vegetation of Croatia - Mediterranean region, beech forests and beech and fir forests
7. Vegetation of Croatia; Euro-Siberian-North American region, non-forest vegetation
- Abiotic factors, ecological valence, ecological niche.
- Population parameters: population density, factors affecting population density, population structure, life cycles, survivorship curves,
- Interspecific and intraspecific relationship. 11. Biodiversity.
- The concept of the ecosystems.
- Macro ecosystem arrangement and basic characteristics.
- Feeding relationship and strategy, food-chain.
- Community metabolism
- Primary and secondary production.
- Community structure.
- Human impact and global changes.
- Freshwater ecosystems and oceans.
- Human impact on aquatic ecosystems.
- Global changes
1. Soil moisture, soil water retention capacity, ecological unavailable water
2. Soil dencity, soil air capacity
3. Mechanical composition of the soil, organic matter in soil
4. Actual and substitution acidity, determination of soil buffering capacity
5. Transpiration, evaporation, determination of basic parameters of water regime of plants
6. Influence of vegetation cover on soil erosion, ice as a mechanical factor of rock disintegration, seeds in biology teaching
7. Use of FCD (https://hirc.botanic.hr/fcd/) in professional and scientific work
8. Ideal plankton;
9. Population density methods;
10. Distribution patterns:
12. Secondary production;
13. Similarity Index.
Include written essay on proposed subjects and presentation
New themes each term