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Histology and Histochemistry

Code: 40671
ECTS: 5.0
Lecturers in charge: izv. prof. dr. sc. Romana Gračan
Lecturers: izv. prof. dr. sc. Romana Gračan - Practicum
Take exam: Studomat
English level:


The lecturer is not able to offer courses in English at this time.

1. komponenta

Lecture typeTotal
Lectures 30
Practicum 30
* Load is given in academic hour (1 academic hour = 45 minutes)
1. to distinguish the types of animal tissues under microscope
2. to recognize the microscopic structure of most animal organs
3. to describe morphological differences in the structure of animal organs
4. to distinguish the principles of histochemical methods in determining chemical components of animal cells, tissues and organs
5. to apply various techniques for cutting and staining of animal tissues for light microscopy


1. The introduction to histology and cyto histochemistry: historical aspect.
2. The principles of preparative techniques.
3. Epithelial tissues (basement membrane, intercellular and luminal surfaces).
4. Connective tissues (types of cells and the structure of ground substance, forming of the collagen). Adipose tissue.
5. Bone and cartilage tissue. Histochemistry of complex carbohydrates and lipids. Bone marrow. Blood.
6. Muscle (skeletal, smooth, cardiac: the principles of contraction).
7. Enzyme histochemistry; enzymes as markers (oxidases and dehydrogenases).
8. Nervous tissue (neurones, nerve fibres, neuroglia, synapses). Histochemical techniques for the demonstration of nervous tissue.
9. Immune system (cells, diffuse lymphoid tissues, lymphoid organs). Immunohistochemistry.
10. Gastrointestinal tract and glands (liver and pancreas). Histochemical demonstration of glycogen in liver. Lectin histochemistry.
11. Respiratory system: the structure of conducting system and respiratory zone.
12. Urinary system: the structure of nephrons and juxtaglomerular apparatus in kidney (alkaline and acid phosphatase in kidney).
13. The endocrine glands and diffuse neuroendocrine system (immunohistochemical methods for peptide hormones).
14. Cytochemistry of the nucleic acids: classical methods for DNA, RNA, histones and hybridization in situ.
15. Quantitative histochemistry.

Practical exercises which enable students for analysis, distinction and comparison of animal tissues and organs, based on light microscopy and histochemical methods.

1. Tissue sampling, choice of fixatives, tissue processing, embedding in paraffin blocks, tissue freezing; sectioning tissues: microtome and cryostat; tissue staining: routine and specialized stains.
2. Light microscopy. Structure of epithelial and connective tissues.
3. Dense connective tissues: bone and cartilage.
4. Structure of muscle and neural tissue.
5. Structure of blood vessels, blood cells; bone marrow.
6. Immune system: thymus, lymph nodes, spleen.
7. Structure of digestive tract: oesophagus, stomach, small intestine.
8. Structure of digestive glands: liver and pancreas.
9. Urinary system: kidney. Respiratory system: trachea and lungs.
10. Endocrine system: hypophysis, adrenal gland, thyroid gland.
11. Detection of lipids and carbohydrates in the tissues.
12. Detection of enzymes in the tissues (alkaline and acid phosphatase, succinate dehydrogenase).
13. Immunohistochemistry (PAP method, ABC method).
14. Quantitative and stereological analysis of histological and histochemical slides.
  1. nterna skripta s predavanjima i protokolima praktikuma
4. semester
Izborni predmeti - Regular study - Biology
Izborni predmeti - Regular study - Molecular Biology
Consultations schedule:
  • izv. prof. dr. sc. Romana Gračan:

    Wednesday and Friday, 10-12 a.m.

  • izv. prof. dr. sc. Romana Gračan:

    Wednesday and Friday, 10-12 a.m.