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Principles and Methodology of Scientific Research in Enviromental Sciences

Code: 53438
ECTS: 2.0
Lecturers in charge: izv. prof. dr. sc. Marko Miliša - Lectures
Take exam: Studomat
English level:


All teaching activities will be held in Croatian. However, foreign students in mixed groups will have the opportunity to attend additional office hours with the lecturer and teaching assistants in English to help master the course materials. Additionally, the lecturer will refer foreign students to the corresponding literature in English, as well as give them the possibility of taking the associated exams in English.

1. komponenta

Lecture typeTotal
Lectures 30
* Load is given in academic hour (1 academic hour = 45 minutes)

Classification of scientific work and fields and disciplines in Natural Science. The principles of scientific method. Identification and formulation of problems in environmental research. Setting objectives and research hypotheses appointment; setting up a research program or experiment in regard of time sequence of the research plan and process materials;
Types of publications: popular, professional and scientific/research articles, review articles, surveys, studies, books and manuals. Data Sources: Literature review, computer database searching, citation of sources/referencing. Scientometrics.
Scientific papers. Scientific styles. How to organize, compile and write a thesis and scientific articles 1st part. The components of scientific work: Title Author Abstract
Scientific papers. Scientific styles. How to organize, compile and write a thesis and scientific articles 2nd part. The components of the scientific paper: Introduction, materials and methods, results
Scientific papers. Scientific styles. How to organize, compile and write a thesis and scientific articles 3rd part. The components of research: discussion, conclusions, references.
Preparation of scientific presentations in the form of poster and oral presentations.
The use of scientific and professional Croatian and English language. Rules of writing scientific articles (point of view, tense, voice), especially in terms of structure and scientific syntax (the target audience sensibility, zooming, story thread, phrases), and style in writing and especially speech.
Research in the field and laboratory. Research equipment in environmental research. Keeping field and laboratory log.
How to organize the contributions to the manuscript. Tables and figures. Using computers in academic work 1st part. Using a computer to organize the images and spreadsheets. Vector, raster and raw graphics.
Using computers in academic work 2nd part. Basic concepts in statistics. The distribution of data. Types of variables. Selection of appropriate statistical methods. Parametric and nonparametric methods. Univariate and multivariate analyses. The principles of interpretation of obtained results: The correlation coefficients, analysis of variance.
Using computers in academic work 3rd part. Performing and interpreting results of: Analysis of covariance, multiple regression, Mann Whitney test, Kruskal Wallis test (multidimensional scaling, cluster analysis, canonical correspondence analysis).
Peer review process (article, poster, presentation, project task).
Ethical issues in the research environment and a code of ethics of scientists.

Learning outcomes:

1) independently identify problems and set up research in the environment, 2) set goals and hypotheses and design research programs in the context of the ethical implications of working with living objects in nature, 3) objectively, practically and ethically interpret of the results obtained by using appropriate computer and mathematical methods, 4) prepare scientific articles for publication, 5) organize team work, 6) prepare project tasks in the management of environmental resources, 7) exercise mobility in education, 8) professionally, critically and objectively peer evaluate
  1. Silobrčić, V. (2008.) Kako sastaviti, objaviti i ocijeniti znanstveno djelo. 6. izdanje, Medicinska naklada, Zagreb.
  2. Zar, J.H. (1996): Biostatistical analysis. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 662 pp.
  3. Pentecost, A. (1999): Analysing Environmental Data, Addison Wesley Longman.
  4. Miller Jr.G.T., Spoolman S. (2010): Environmental Science; Brooks Cole
  5. Wilson E. B. (1998): An Introduction to Scientific Research Dover Publications
    Clements F.E. (2011) Research methods in ecology; University of Toronto Libraries
    Hairston, N. G. (1989):. Ecological experiments: purpose, design and execution. Cambridge University Press, Cam- bridge, UK.
    Carey S.S. (2011): A Beginner's Guide to Scientific Method; Wadsworth Publishing
    Cohen M. F. (2008): An Introduction To Logic And Scientific Method; Hughes Press
    Bart, J. Flinger, M. A. Notz, W.I. (1998): Sampling and Statistical methods for Behavioral Ecologists, Cambridge University Press.
    Izbor znanstvenih članaka dostupnih u on-line bazama - po izboru studenata.
1. semester
Mandatory course - Regular study - Environmental Sciences
Consultations schedule: