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Fundamentals of Biology

Code: 37609
ECTS: 5.0
Lecturers in charge: izv. prof. dr. sc. Tvrtko Dražina
Lecturers: izv. prof. dr. sc. Tvrtko Dražina - Practicum
dr. sc. Dora Hlebec - Practicum
Take exam: Studomat
English level:


The lecturer is not able to offer courses in English at this time.

1. komponenta

Lecture typeTotal
Lectures 30
Practicum 45
* Load is given in academic hour (1 academic hour = 45 minutes)
1. Understand the basic biological concepts and effectively use the relevant scientific language
2. Discuss the properties that define life
3. Define the basic principles of cellular activities
4. Evaluate the importance of reproduction in maintaining life continuity through the study of mitosis, meiosis, embryonal development and diversity of reproductive strategies
5. Integrate the relationship among structure and function of cellular organelles, organs and organic systems, and the organisms' life histories and environmental conditions
6. Differentiate major paths and patterns of the organisms' critical life functions such as: nutrition and digestion, gas exchange and circulation, water/ion regulation and excretion, locomotion and interactions with physical environment.
7. Evaluate experimental approach in studying biological processes by demonstrating autonomous lab-exercises
8. Demonstrate competence and precision in the use of microscopes and basic laboratory equipment.

1. Timeline of evolutionary history of life (chemical and biological evolution on Earth). Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types.
2. Biomembranes and transmembrane transport. Structure and function of the cell nucleus.
3. Structure and function of chloroplasts and mitochondria. Endosymbiotic theory on the origin of plastids and mitochondria. Cytoskeleton and flagellar, kinetosomal and centrosomal structure.
4. Mitosis and meiosis.
5. Reproduction. Asexual reproduction of unicellular and multicellular organisms. Sexual reproduction of protists. Sexual reproduction of animals.
6. Spermatozoid structure. Structure and types of egg cells. Parthenogenesis. Heteromorphic alteration of generations in plants. Fertilization.
7. Embryogenesis of animals: cleavage types, development of germ layers, Protostomia and Deuterostomia.
8. Histological differentiation, body cavities. Postembryonic animal development. Plant development.
9. Biological species concept. Mechanisms of reproductive isolation. Population variability: genetic and non-genetic determinants.
10. Animal tissues: epithelial, connective, muscular and neural. Structure and function of organs and organic systems: integument and skeletal systems.
11. Structure and function of muscular, neural and sensory systems.
12. Structure and function of digestive, respiratory and circulatory systems.
13. Structure and function of excretory and reproductive systems.
14. Plant tissues and organs: meristems and permanent tissues, wood structure.
15. Morphology of the vegetative plant organs. Flower structure.

1. Microscope and microscopy
2. Plant and animal cells
3. DNA extraction, cell size, plasmolysis
4. Mitosis and meiosis
5. Asexual and sexual reproduction; parthenogenesis; metamorphosis
6. Body symmetries and animal life histories; animal segmentation and body cavities
7. Biological classification, nomenclature and species determination
8. Animal tissues; Integument system
9. Skeletal and muscular systems
10. Neural and sensory systems; taxes
11. Digestive, respiratory and circulatory systems
12. Excretory and reproductive systems
13. Plant tissues
14. Plant morphology I
15. Plant morphology II (Flower structure).
  1. Habdija, I., Primc Habdija, B., Radanović, I., Vidaković, J., Kučinić, M., Špoljar, M., Matoničkin, R., Miliša, M., 2004: Protista-Protozoa i Metazoa-Invertebrata. Funkcionalna građa i praktikum.- Meridijani, Samobor.
  2. Matoničkin, I., Klobučar, G., Kučinić, M. 2010: Opća zoologija.- Školska knjiga, Zagreb.
  3. Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, Jane B. Reece (2016): Campbell Biology, 11th Edition. - ODABRANA POGLAVLJA
  4. Nikolić T. (2015): Morfologija bilja. Alfa, Zagreb. - ODABRANA POGLAVLJA
1. semester
Mandatory course - Regular study - Environmental Sciences
Consultations schedule: