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Vegetation Ecology

Code: 74436
ECTS: 6.0
Lecturers in charge: prof. dr. sc. Antun Alegro
Lecturers: dr. sc. Anja Rimac - Practicum
Take exam: Studomat
English level:


All teaching activities will be held in Croatian. However, foreign students in mixed groups will have the opportunity to attend additional office hours with the lecturer and teaching assistants in English to help master the course materials. Additionally, the lecturer will refer foreign students to the corresponding literature in English, as well as give them the possibility of taking the associated exams in English.

1. komponenta

Lecture typeTotal
Lectures 60
Practicum 15
* Load is given in academic hour (1 academic hour = 45 minutes)
1. Introduction to ecology, research directions and programs, basis of cognitive theories in vegetation ecology, field experiments in vegetation ecology.
2. Scientific and theoretical basis in vegetation ecology, position of vegetation science in the system of natural history science, reduction, generalized induction, theoretical basis of plant communitie, habitat and ecological gradients, processes in communitie origin, changing of environmental condition on site.
3. Diversity and diversity indexes, alpha diversity and indexes, beta diversity and indexes, species richness and area relationships, spatial differentiations of plant communities, continnum-discontinuum controversion, vegetation models, nature of the communities borders.
4. Niche concept, Lotka Volterra competition model, methods of plant community description and classification, physionomic-ecological, floristic (Braun Blanquet)
5. Phases in syntaxonomical classification, scandinavian plant sociology, Early Uppsala scool, Late Uppsala scool, Finnish scool, recent state in vegetation classification, methods in measuring of species abundancy.
6. Environmental data, sampling of environmental data, primary and secondary matrix, variability types in the dana matrix, geometric models in analysis, tranformations in the vegetation data matrix, transformations in the environemntal dana matrix.
7. Relationships among sites in vegetation matrix, distance measures and its features, theoretical basis in distance measure application.
8. Relationships in the environmenta matrix, methods of dana analysis in vegetation ecology, gradient analysis, analysis models, ordination, geometrical, statistical, and algebraic model, PCA, PCoA.
9. BCA, CA, DCA, NMDS, variations in particular analyses.
10. Methods of constrained ordination, RDA, CCA, DCCA, Co-inertia analysis, scaling of ordination axes, interpretation of analyses results, numerical classification, classification methods, distance measures, TWINSPAN, staistical testing among a priori groups, MRPP, ANOSIM, ISA,
11. Vegetation dynamics, change periodicity, fluctuation, succession, vegetation history, synphenology, syndynamics, sychronology.
12. Mechanisms in the succession processes, methods in succession research, direct methods, permanent plots, indirect methods, space-time exchange, experiments in succession research, statistical analyses.
13. Kinds of successions, succession series and its parts, syndynamica connected species, fluctuations,
14. Special vegetation ecology, plant formations and communites, Formation of water plant communities, water as habitat, water palnt adaptations, Lemnetea minoris, Zostereta, Ruppietea, macrophytic vegetation in fresh waters, Charetea, Utricularietea, Littoreletea, Potametea pectinati, formation of therophytic pioneer communites, Thero Salicornietea, Bidentetea tripartiti, Polygono Poetea annui,
15. Stellarietea mediae, Isoeto nanojuncetea, formation of grassland pioneercommunites on moving soils, Spartinetea, Ammophyletea, Honkeyo Elymetea, formation of communities on screes, rocks and cliffs, Crithmo Limonietea, Drypetea spinosae, Thlaspietea rotundifolii, Asplenietea trichomanis, Adiantetea capilli veneris.
16. Formation of moist grasslands, Phragmiti Caricetea elatae, Formacija izvorišta, niski cretovi i zamočvareni travnjaci, Scheuchzerio Caricetea fuscae, Formation of grasslands, Festuco Brometea, Molinio Arrhenatheretea,
17. Thero Brachypodietea, Seslerietea juncifoliae, formation of ruderal communities, Parietaria judaicae, Chenopodietea, Polygono arenastri Poetea annuae
18. Artemisietea vulgaris, Galio Urticetea, Nardo Callunetea, Trifolio Geranietea sanguinei, Epilobetea angustifolii, Betulo Adenostyletea, Inuletea viscosae,
19. Formation of bushes, Rhamno Prunetea, Salicetea purpureae, Paliuretea, Erico Cistetea, Formation forest, forest ecology and forest plants, life form tree, inteaction to phyto phagous insects and wild animals, syntaxonomical overview of forest vegetation in Croatia, Querco Fagetea.
20. Quercetea robori petraeae, Vaccinio Picetea, Quercetea ilicis, Erico Pinetea.

1. Making the phytocoenological records analytical phase, sampling of environmental data
2. Pruducing the vegetation and environmental matrices.
3. Knowing the software for statistical analyses, transformations of matrices and preparation and planning of analyses
4. Analyses of biodiversity na interpretation of results, ordination methods PCA, CA, DCA i intepretation of output and plots.
5. Methods of constrained ordination RDA, CCA, interpretation of output and plots.
6. Methods of numerical classification, cluster analyses, UPGMA, Twinspan, interpretation of results.
7. Estimating of optimal number of cluster for analysis, methods of analysis with a priori defined groups MRPP, ISA, ANOSIM, results interpretation.

Learning results:
1. Sampling of vegetation and environmental variables in nature
2. Analysing of vegetation using syntaxonomical and numerical methods and extracting most important ecological factors.
3. Differentiating the vegetation types and connecting them to main ecological gradients.
4. Lead and organize protection of vegetation types and its habitats.
5. Lead and organize protection of landscape and its elements.
  1. B., J.B. Grace, 2002: Analysis if ecological communities. MJM Sofrtware Design, Gleneden Beach. McCune
  2. Peck J.L., 2011: Multivariate analysis for community ecologists. MJM Sofrtware Design, Gleneden Beach.
  3. Oekland R.H., 1990: Vegetation ecology: theory, methods and applications with reference to Fennoscandia. Sommerfeltia Supplement 1.
  4. Podani J., 2000: Introduction to the exploration of multivariate biological data. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden
  5. Lepš, J. & P. Šmilauer, 2003: Multivariate analysis of ecological data using CANOCO. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  6. Trinajstić I., 2008: Biljne zajednice Republike Hrvatske, Šumarska akademija, Zagreb.
  7. Vukelić J., 2012: Šumska vegetacija Hrvatske. Sveučilište u Zagreb, Šumarski fakultet, Državni zavod za zaštitu prirode, Zagreb
1. semester
Izborni predmeti - Regular module - Botany
Mandatory course - Regular module - Terrestrial Ecosystems
Consultations schedule: