No polls currently selected on this page!


Repository is empty


Code: 83782
ECTS: 4.0
Lecturers in charge: prof. dr. sc. Zlatko Liber
Lecturers: dr. sc. Ivana Rešetnik - Practicum
Take exam: Studomat
English level:


All teaching activities will be held in Croatian. However, foreign students in mixed groups will have the opportunity to attend additional office hours with the lecturer and teaching assistants in English to help master the course materials. Additionally, the lecturer will refer foreign students to the corresponding literature in English, as well as give them the possibility of taking the associated exams in English.

1. komponenta

Lecture typeTotal
Lectures 30
Practicum 30
* Load is given in academic hour (1 academic hour = 45 minutes)
1. Analyze morphological and anatomical structure of plants.
2. Discuss biodiversity, evolution and ecology of plants.
3. Recognize the most common, the most commercially important, endemic, endangered and protected species of the Croatian flora.
4. Make herbarium and photo collection of the 100 most common, endemic and endangered species of the Croatian flora.
5. Interconnect the knowledge about morphology, anatomy, phylogeny, taxonomy and ecology of plants with different climate, habitat, ecological and geological conditions on Earth in the past, present and future.
6. Recognize the importance of biodiversity of mosses, ferns and seed plants for the quality of life on Earth.
7. Give an overview of the legislation and the categories of threatened species.
8. Analyze current state of floral vulnerability and predict measures to improve the current situation.
9. Apply methods of practical work with plant material construction and maintenance of herbarium collections, preparation of microscopic slides, preparation of conservation solutions, determination of species using determination keys, work with stereo magnifier and microscope.
10. Independently search for and use the most important botanical information on the Internet.

Botany is the scientific study of plants. In this course, the term plant is restricted to photosynthetic organisms living on land and known as mosses, ferns and seed plants. This course in Botany will begin with plant anatomy and morphology and then move on to plant evolution and basic taxonomy with special emphasis on the Croatian plants, their evolutionary history, diversity, endemism, endangered state and conservation. Finally, the ways in which plants fit into the global ecology will be discussed, highlighting their importance in any habitat. This introductory course in botany will prepare students for further thorough studies in plant systematics, physiology, ecology and horticulture.

1. Course content. Ways of knowledge evaluation. Botany as a modern scientific discipline. What are land plants?
2. Alternation of generations, Types of tissue meristematic tissue, ground tissue, epidermal tissue, absorption tissue, vascular tissue, mechanical tissue ....
3. The anatomy and morphology of vegetative organs I root, role, growth and differentiation, types of roots, vegetative propagation, symbiosis. stem, forms, growth and differentiation, buds, short and long branches, conversions and adaptations, primary and secondary growth.
4. The anatomy and morphology of vegetative organs II leaf, microphylls and megaphylls, anatomy of leaf, basic parts, polymorphism of leaves, conversions and adaptations. Anatomy and morphology of the reproductive organs sporangia and sporophylls, ovule, stamen, endosporic gametophyte, definition and role of flower, flower parts, evolutionary primitive and derived features. androecium, ginoecium, nectary, floral formulas. inflorescences.
5. Pollination. Fertilization. Seed. Fruit. Propagation. Germination.
6. Phylogenetic classification systems. Plant naming. Principles of plant determination, Determination keys. Herbarium collections. Describtion of new plant species. Botanical terminology.
7. Land colonization. The evolution of vegetative and generative organs. How and why was sporophyte became dominant over gametophyte in most of living plants.
8. Mosses, plants with the most complex gametophyte on the Earth. Classification, taxonomy, ecology and distribution of mosses.
9. Ferns, the oldest vascular plants. Carbon forests. Classification, taxonomy, ecology and distribution of ferns. The most important, endemic and endangered fern species in the Croatian flora.
10. Seed plants. Basic morphological and anatomical characteristics. Evolution of seed plants. Classification, taxonomy, ecology and distribution of seed plants.
11. Gymnosperms. Basic morphological and anatomical characteristics. Classification, taxonomy, ecology and distribution of gymnosperms. Conifers. Ephedra, Gnetum and Welwitchia, evolutionary relationship with the angiosperms. The economic importance of gymnosperms. Endemic and endangered gymnosperms in the Croatian flora.
12. Angiosperms Flowering plants. Classification, taxonomy, ecology and distribution. Phylogeny of flowering plants Angiosperms Phylogenetic Group. Basal angiosperms Magnoliaceae, Nympheaceae.
13. Dicotyledons. Overview of dicots diversity: Fagaceae, Rosaceae, Fabaceae, Brassicaceae, Lamiaceae, Asteraceae.
14. Monocotyledons. Overview of monocots diversity: Poaceae, Liliaceae, Iridaceae, Orchydaceae.
15. Economically important plant species coffee, tobacco, tea, vines, cacao, rice, wheat, olive, cotton, etc.. Endemic, endangered and protected angiosperms of Croatian flora.

1. Introduction to the practical work. Preparation of microscopic slides. Plant cell Allium cepa L., luk. Shoot apical meristem Elodea canadensis Rich.
2. Cross section of the fern stem Pteridium aquillinum L Kuhn, bujad. Primary and secondary growth of stem. Phloem and xylen, Tissue types Aristolochia macrophylla Lam.. Primary growth of the stem of monocots Zea mays L.
3. Structure of wood of gymnosperms Pinus nigra Arnold. Structure of wood of angiosperms Tilia cordata Mill.
4. Primary growth of roots Iris sp.. Leaf anatomy, stoma types Tradescantia fluminensis Velloso, Zea mays L.. Dorsiventral leaf Fagus sylvatica L.. Equifacial leaf Pinus nigra Arnold.
5. Morphology of leaf. Conversion of leaves. Leaf arrangments. Morphology of root. Root types. Plant reprodactive morphology.
6. Introduction to the herbarium collection of Department of Botany Herbarium Croaticum, ZA. How to make a student herbarium collection. Flora Croatica database and other online botany databases.
7. The first written examination
8. Mosses, gametophyte and sporophyte, alternation of generations, gametophyte domination Marchantia polymorpha L.. Funaria sp. ili Polytrichum sp..
9. Club mosses Sellaginela sp., morphology and anatomy of sporophyte, heterospory and heterosporous life cycle, sporophyte domination. thinwalled sporangia ferns Adiantum capillusveneris L., prothallium, sori on the underside of the leaf, thinwalled sporangia with annulus. Water ferns Marsilea quadrifolia, habitus, heterospory, sporocarp.
10. Gymnosperms Pinus sp., male cone, stamen, pollen grain, female cone, ovulate scale, sterile bract, ovule, winged seed. Ephedra campylopoda C. A. Mey, bisexual flower.
11. Ranunculaceae Eranthis hyemalis Salisb., habitus, flower, follicle. Fagaceae Fagus sylvatica L., branch with male and female inflorescences, male inflorescence, female dichasium, nut. Rosaceae Fragaria vesca L., habitus, flower, aggregate fruit. Malus sp. flower, pome, cross section of pome. Prunus sp. flower, drupe, cross section of drupe.
12. Lamiaceae Lamium maculatum L., habitus, dichasium, zygomorphic flower, nutlet. Asteraceae Doronicum austriacum Jacq., Centaurea montana L., inflorescence head, peripheral zygomorphic flower, central actinomorphic flower, achene with pappus.
13. Iridaceae Iris palida Lam., inflorescence, meranthium, ovary cross section, capsule. Poaceae Avena barbata Pott ex Link, spikelet, flower, lemma, lodicule, three stamens with very long filaments, ovary with two feathery stigmas.
14. Botanical Garden tour, final synthesis of the acquired knowledge and learning about the specifics of the Croatian flora. The use of plant determination keys.
15. The second written examination
  1. Liber Z. 2014 Botanika. DVD izdanje
    Nikolić T. 2015 Morfologija bilja. Alfa, Zagreb
    Nikolić T. 2013 Sistematska botanika: Raznolikost i evolucija biljnog svijeta. Alfa, Zagreb
    Nikolić T. 2013 Praktikum iz sistematske botanike: Raznolikost i evolucija biljnog svijeta. Alfa, Zagreb
    Botanički praktikum On-Line
  2. Domac R. 1994 Flora Hrvatske. Priručnik za određivanje bilja, Školska knjiga, Zagreb
    Nikolić, T. 1996 Herbarijski priručnik. Školska knjiga, Zagreb
    Nikolić, T., Topić J. 2005 Crvena knjiga vaskularne flore Hrvatske, Ministarstvo kulture, DZZP, Zagreb
Prerequisit for:
Enrollment :
Passed : Fundamentals of Biology
4. semester
Mandatory course - Regular study - Environmental Sciences
Consultations schedule:
  • prof. dr. sc. Zlatko Liber:

    Every Friday 13 - 15h. Marulićev trg 9A/ II